The user and mission requirements are derived from a host of national and international standards and regulations.
While the system of international space treaties (e.g. the Outer Space Treaty of 1967) provide rather rough guidelines on space debris, more recently the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space – particularly the Working Group on the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities – has drawn up a much more comprehensive and concrete set of guidelines.
Based on the guidelines of the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) two branches of recommendations and requirements were established. A) the European Code of Conduct for Space Debris Mitigation and B) ISO 24113 and ECSS-U-AS-10C.
The European Code of Conduct for Space Debris Mitigation is a voluntary agreement between European national space agencies and ESA. It shall ensure that no new space debris is generated by future missions and it is mandatory for ESA projects with the requirements on space debris mitigation for ESA projects.
Within Europe, ECSS-U-AS-10C is now the primary source of debris mitigation requirements. ESA updated its Space Debris Mitigation Policy document in 2014 to adopt ECSS-U-AS-10C as its standard for space debris mitigation.
All these requirements influence national standards and reports which have again an influence on the requirements itself.
The TeSeR post-mission-disposal (PMD) module shall be compliant to ECSS and ISO.
|UR-010||The PMD module shall enable a spacecraft to be manoeuvred on a safe removal trajectory (Post-Mission-Disposal).|
|UR-020||The PMD module shall enable a spacecraft to be compliant with space debris mitigation requirements regarding the remaining orbit lifetime after end of operation.|
|UR-030||The PMD module shall enable a spacecraft to be compliant with space debris requirement regarding the re-entry casualty risk.|
|UR-040||The PMD module shall enable a spacecraft to be compliant with space debris mitigation requirement regarding the generation of new space debris.|
|UR-050||The PMD module shall have no detrimental effect on the original mission of a spacecraft.|
|UR-060||The PMD module shall enable a spacecraft to be compliant with space debris mitigation requirements regarding the probability of successful disposal.|
|UR-070||The PMD module shall ensure that a spacecraft is removed from its orbit after its end of operation (PMD) in a cost efficient way.|
Based on the user requirements a list of high-level mission requirements is derived.
|#||High-level Mission Requirement|
|MR-010||The PMD module shall enable a spacecraft to be removed from the LEO protected region within 25 years after its end of operation (PMD).|
|MG-020||As a goal the PMD module should be capable of manoeuvring a spacecraft from any Earth orbit after its end of operation (PMD).|
|MR-030||The PMD module shall ensure that a spacecraft is to be removed from the GEO protected region within tbd days/months after its end of operation.|
|MR-040||In case of a re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere the casualty risk on ground shall be <10-4.|
|MR-050||The removal shall cause no new space debris on purpose.|
|MR-060||The PMD module shall not increase the probability of a catastrophic collision with other space objects over the disposal lifetime.|
|MR-070||The PMD module shall be able to remove different kinds of spacecraft (but only one spacecraft per PMD module).|
|MG-080||As a goal the PMD module should be capable of removing any spacecraft (but only one spacecraft per PMD module).|
|MR-090||The PMD module shall be able to remove a spacecraft after end of operation with a probability of success of at least 85 %.|
|MR-100||The PMD module shall not perform the PMD unintentionally.|
|MR-110||The PMD module shall not hinder the normal operations of the host spacecraft.|
|MR-120||The PMD module shall be able to remove a spacecraft after end of operation in a cost efficient way.|